Public Health Midterm Flashcards (2022)

Term

Public health is concerned with

Definition

the health of the community as a whole

Term

What is public health's primary mission?

Definition

To prevent injury and disease

Term

What does public health do to assure populations stay healthy

Definition

monitor and diagnose the health concerns of entire communities

Term

Public health contiuum affected by :

Definition

Genetics, demographic characteristics, enviroment, nutrition, social enviroment, age andbehavior

Term

Order of public continuum and what it represents

Definition

**Total health (top) to subclinical discession to clinical horizon to death

**evaluates how a person goes from total health to death

Term

The ultimate goal of public health is to

Definition

alter to natural history of a disease in a favorable way

Term

Cheapest : Measures taken to prevent a disease from starting. Example

Definition

Primary prevention by education. Ex- saftey glasses to prevent injury

Term

Secondary prevention

- who does this
- example

Definition

stop subclinical disease from becoming symptomatic or passable to others
-healthcare practitioners
- screenings for early detection

Term

health policy, epidemiology, behavioral science and global health are examples of :

Definition

public health disciplines

Term

Three reasons why we need to know about public ?

Definition

disease prevalence, probable outcomes and behavior

so that we can make informative descicions

Term

Define epidemiology. Started when and give two other exaples

Definition

Study of the distribution and determinants of disease. Started in biblical times and seen in bubonic plague (1400s) and yelow fever (1700s)

Term

Who was john snow and what did he do?

Definition

Father of epidemiology and hypothesized Cholera was due to contaminated water was a source. Looked at age and sex.

Term

In early epidemiology, rate was defined as

Definition

fequency of events that occured in a defined period of time/ population at risk

Term

mortality rate equation:

Definition

( # poeple dying / # poeple in the group) x unit time

Term

This seeks to make clinical decisions based on best evidence and unbiased info. Integration of that best is :

Definition

describes evidence based healthcare.

the best : research or evidence, clinical expertise and patient values

Term

To understand and apply epidemiologcal concepts, one must

Definition

get info, assess the quality of that info in publications and determine the validity of into

Term

Ivestigation, literature search and cross referencing are important to:

What is the importance of research

Definition

important to validate teacher's advice. Research is important in the "art" of science and evidence and scientific practice

Term

All observations, diagnosis and prognosis are influenced by chance. The skill of clinician affect ___. Prognosis and treatment vary depending on _____.

Definition

diagnoses

personal factors

Term

instead of saying that something "caused" it, you would say

Definition

something may increase the risk of a disease

Term

Henneken and Buring casual inference factor evaluate: (5)

Definition

Strength of association, biological plausibility, agreement with accepted knowledge, time sequence, dose response

Term

The degree in which one vairbale is related to the other is ___.

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how can this be determined?

Definition

Strength of association and determines by risk, correlation coefficent, regresson, difference in groups

Term

Biological plausibility and Ex

Definition

does this relationship make sense scientifically?

Ex: antioxidants for AMD

Term

What must you rule out before making a causual inference?

Definition

bias

Term

Bias where subjects may not be representative for target population and how it is avoided

Definition

Selection bias and prevented by designing a study useing random sampling methods

Term

Problem where a bias can be a part associated with both exposure and disease and is controlled by..

Definition

confounding bias and controlled aslo by design in data analysis

Term

bias measurement error in two forms.

Definition

infomation bias that can be differential misclassification with tools or non differential misclassification that is lack of prescicion

Term

Statistics is a set of math tools to : (5)

Definition

summarize, describe, compare, interpret

datasets

Term

Person, place and time charactierizes

Definition

distribution in a population

Term

The most important determenant and 5 others

Definition

Age, sex, race, marital status, religion and occupation

Term

When looking at "place" on what levels would we look (4)

Definition

world-wide, regionally, locally and urban vs. rural

Term

when looking at "time", we look at

Definition

short term, recurrent/periodical/seasonal and long term

Term

a categorical value where there is no order like female, male, white, black

Definition

Nomical variable

Term

Categorical value but there is order like 1,2,3 or mild moderate to severe

Definition

Ordinal variables

Term

Continuous variables are assocaite with

Definition

fractions, decimals and continuoous numbers

Term

Statistical testing is used to ? this is based on?

Definition

make an inference about a population and based on info obtained from samples

Term

Because you cannot test the entire population, use a subset called ____ chosen carefully to represent the entire population

Definition

sample

Term

Central tendency

Definition

average of distribution values : mean, median and mode

Term

mean( outliers can skew)

median

mode

Definition

mean: sum of all values (x)/ number of values (n)

median: is the middle of ordered #

mode: the most common value

Term

When is the mean preferred?

Definition

for normally distributed samples or parametric data

Term

When there is high variability, what is prefered?

Definition

median for large SD

Term

when comparing two groups, what is it important to do ?

Definition

compare means to means and medians to medians

Term

What does a bell-shaped curve mean?

Definition

that the mean, median and mode are equal and 68 percent of the population lie within one SD

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Term

Measure of variability

Definition

summarizes how much the values differ from the average

Term

The difference between the lowest value and the largest value

Definition

Range : useful for where values lie

Term

Standard deviation
- define each level

Definition

average deviation of all values from the mean in a bell-shaped curve

one SD - 65 percent
twoSD-95 percent

three SD- 98 percent

Term

the standard deviation squared

Definition

variance

Term

Confidence interval measure variability for____?

what interval is most commonly used?

Definition

normally distribte ( parametric) data

usually 95 percent interval and p-value

Term

Occasional disease, irregular

Definition

sporadic

Term

endemic

Definition

disease stays in population at low frequency

Term

sudden outbreak in disease about typical level

Definition

epidemic

Term

pandemic

Definition

epidemic over wide area ( may be the entire world)

Term

all reported cases of disease , illness and disability

Definition

morbidity

Term

mortality

Definition

reported deaths dueto a disease

Term

5 main risk factors

Definition

smoking, overweight, diabetes, high blood pressure, risky behavior

Term

Why are some prevalences low?

Definition

because it could be serious enough to kill off people quickly

Term

leading causes of death worldwide vary depending on :

Definition

developement of the country, income, education, health services

Term

High income have what top 5 leading causes of death. And not including..

Definition

coronary heart disease

cancer

stroke

chronicpulmonary disease

diabetes

DOES NOT include HIV and AIDS

Term

Causes of death in middle-income countries in order are:

Definition

Stroke, coronary heart disease, chronic pulmonary disease, ower respiratory infection and HIV/AIDS

Term

Causes of death in low-income countries in order from most prevalent to least is:

Definition

Coronary heart disease, lower respiratory infection, HIV/AIDS, perinatal conditions, stroke

Term

What country has a high infant mortality-rate

Definition

Africa

Term

___ in the world are visually impaired

___ impaired with uncorrected refractive error with VA's worse than 20/70

Definition

161 million people

259 million estimated

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Term

What factor makes visual impairment unequally distributed ?

Childhood blindness remains a significant problem because...?

Definition

Age creates unequal distribution

problem because "blind years" where 1.4 million blind children below age 15.

Term

What distribution of visual impairment is relative to gender?

Definition

Suggest that at all ages, females have a significantly higher risk of being visually impaired than males

Term

With geographical matters visual impairment is not distributed unimformly. More than what percent of the world's impaired

Definition

90 percent of the world's visually impaired live in developing countries

Term

The leading cause of blind is ____

what is second leading cause ____

what is 3rd leading cause of blind___

Definition

cataracts

glaucoma

age-related macular degeneration ( but becoming the leading cause )

Term

Where is the prevalence of cataracts higher ?

Definition

countries near the equator, countries that have difficulty in health care access

Term

Countries with higher number of black inhabitants have a higher prevalence of :

Definition

Primary open angle glaucoma ( POAG)

Term

Leading cuase of legal blindness for people over 50 in the western world is ___

Definition

ARMD and is ranked third globally

Term

Leading cause of permanent impairment of central vision amoud Americans older than 65...

Definition

ARMD

Term

How many workers experience job-related eye injuries/day?

what were percent of occupational eye injuries could be precented with protective eyewear?

Definition

2,000 US workers

90 % of eye injuries could be prevented

Term

Causes for visual impairment for children in developing countries: (3)

Definition

Retinopathy of prematurity, genetic albanism ad traumatics

Term

Causes of children visual impairment in "developing " countries ( 4)

Definition

xerophthalmia (vit a defieciency), onchoceriasis, measles and trachoma

Term

How does poverty affect visual impairment?

Definition

blindness remains a key

Term

what percent of blindness is preventable?

what percent of child blindness is preventable?

Definition

75 percent

5o percent

Term

What two types of studies are considered observational?

Definition

Follow-up (Co-hort)

and case-control

Term

Follow-up study

-individuals with what two statii

- followed from what time to what time

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Definition

- exposed and non-exposed

- time zero to time (r)

Term

Common closing date due to : (4)

Definition

gets the disease

dies

becomes lost to follow up

biologically leave the pool ( i.e surgery)

Term

Experimental study vs Follow-up

- does not control what ?

-no ____

- what is more of a problem

Definition

-does not control status of people

- no randomization

- more bias and confounding

Term

-limitations of external comparison group

- use of inernal group

Definition

- too many people could be exposed

-preferred over over external

Term

incidence rate it determine by what equation?

Definition

IR= Exposed/ unexposed

Term

-dose is based on:

- natural exposure can be used if:

Definition

-duration of exposure and intensity

- natural used if the exposure data is too large

Term

-case control study design is a common..

-purppose of a case control study

Definition

- observational study

-investigate associations between exposures and disease that that etiology can be better understood.

Term

-cases for control are chosen based on

Definition

disease status

Term

-Controls should be..

-do not choose controls whose history ...

Definition

- drawn from the same population

-is known

Term

population based controls strength

pop based control limitation

Definition

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